Introduction To Judaism

(I) INTRODUCTION TO JUDAISM:

Judaism is one of the important Semitic religions. Its followers are known as Jews and they believe in the prophetic mission of Prophet Moses (pbuh).

(II) CONCEPT OF GOD IN JUDAISM:

(i) The following verse from the book of Deuteronomy contains an exhortation from Moses (pbuh):

"Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad"

It is a Hebrew quotation which means:

"Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord"
[The Bible, Deuteronomy 6:4]




The following verses are from the Book of Isaiah:

(ii) "I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no saviour."
[The Bible, Isaiah 43:11]

(iii) "I am Lord, and there is none else There is no God besides me."
[The Bible, Isaiah 45 : 5]

(iv) "I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me."
[The Bible, Isaiah 46:9]

(v) Judaism condemns idol worship in the following verses:

"Thou shalt have no other gods before me."

"Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth."

"Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God."
[The Bible, Exodus 20:3-5]

(iv) A similar message is repeated in the book of Deuteronomy:

"Thou shalt have none other gods before me."

"Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that in the earth beneath, or that is in the water beneath the earth."

"Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God."
[The Bible, Deuteronomy 5:7-9]

In Judaism too, we find the same thread of monotheism, that is seen in other religions.

(III) MUHAMMAD IN JEWISH SCRIPTURES (THE OLD TESTAMENT):

1) Muhammad (pbuh) prophesised in the book of Deuteronomy:

a) God Almighty speaks to Moses in Book of Deuteronomy chapter 18 verse 18:

"I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him."

b) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is like Moses (pbuh):

i) Both had a father and a mother.

ii) Both were married and had children.

iii) Both were accepted as Prophets by their people in their lifetime.

iv) Both besides being Prophets were also kings i.e. they could inflict capital punishment.

v) Both brought new laws and new regulations for their people.

vi) Both died a natural death.

c) Muhammad (pbuh) is from among the brethren of Moses (pbuh). Arabs are brethren of Jews. Abraham (pbuh) had two sons:

Ishmail and Isaac. The Arabs are the descendants of Ishmail (pbuh) and the Jews are the descendants of Isaac (pbuh).

d) Words in the mouth:

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was unlettered and whatever revelations he received from God Almighty he repeated it verbatim.

Deuteronomy (18:18):

"I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him."

2) Muhammad (pbuh) is prophesised in the book of Isaiah:

It is mentioned in the book of Isaiah chapter 29 verse 12:

"And the book is delivered to him that is not learned saying, ‘Read this, I pray thee’; and he saith, ‘I am not learned’.

"When Archangel Gabriel commanded Muhammad (pbuh) by saying ‘Iqra’, he replied "I am not learned".

3) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned by name in the Song of Solomon

chapter 5 verse 16:

"Hikko Mamittakim we kullo Muhammadim Zehdoodeh wa Zehrace Bayna Jerusalem."

"His mouth is most sweet: ye, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughter of Jerusalem."

All the prophecies mentioned in the Old Testament regarding Muhammad (pbuh) besides applying to the Jews also hold good for the Christians (H Q. 61:6)
Read More...

Concept Of God In Judaism


Judaism is one of the major Semitic religions. Its followers are known as Jews and they believe in the prophetic mission of Prophet Moses (pbuh).

(i) The following verse from Deuteronomy contains an exhortation from Moses: (pbuh)

"Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad" 
It is a Hebrew quotation which means
"Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord" 
[The Bible, Deut 6:4]

(ii) Consider the following verses from the Book of Isaiah:

"I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no saviour." 
[The Bible, Isaiah 43:11]

(iii) "I am lord, and there is none else There is no God besides me."
 
[The Bible, Isaiah 45 : 5]

(iv) "I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me." 

[The Bible, Isaiah 46:9]

(v) Judaism condemns idol worship in the following verses:
"Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor see them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God…" 
[The Bible, Exodus 20:3-5]

(iv) A similar message is repeated in the book of Deutoronomy:

"Thou shalt have none other gods before me.Thou shalt not make thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that in the earth beneath, or that is in the water beneath the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God…" 
[The Bible, Deut 5:7-9]
Read More...

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) In Jewish Scriptures

1) Muhammad (pbuh) prophesised in the book of Deuteronomy:


a) God Almighty speaks to Moses in Book of Deuteronomy chapter 18 verse 18:


"I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him."
b) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is like Moses (pbuh):


i) Both had a father and a mother.


ii) Both were married and had children.


iii) Both were accepted as Prophets by their people in their lifetime.


iv) Both besides being Prophets were also kings i.e. they could inflict capital punishment.


v) Both brought new laws and new regulations for their people.


vi) Both died a natural death.


c) Muhammad (pbuh) is from among the brethren of Moses (pbuh). Arabs are brethren of Jews. Abraham (pbuh) had two sons: Ishmail and Isaac. The Arabs are the descendants of Ishmail (pbuh) and the Jews are the descendants of Isaac (pbuh).


d) Words in the mouth:


Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was unlettered and whatever revelations he received from God Almighty he repeated it verbatim.


Deuteronomy (18:18):


"I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him."

2) Muhammad (pbuh) is prophesised in the book of Isaiah:



It is mentioned in the book of Isaiah chapter 29 verse 12:


"And the book is delivered to him that is not learned saying, ‘Read this, I pray thee’; and he saith, ‘I am not learned’.


"When Archangel Gabriel commanded Muhammad (pbuh) by saying ‘Iqra’, he replied "I am not learned".


3) Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned by name in the Song of Solomon chapter 5 verse 16:


"Hikko Mamittakim we kullo Muhammadim Zehdoodeh wa Zehrace Bayna Jerusalem."


"His mouth is most sweet: ye, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughter of Jerusalem."


All the prophecies mentioned in the Old Testament regarding Muhammad (pbuh) besides applying to the Jews also hold good for the Christians (H Q. 61:6).
Read More...

Introduction To Buddhism

BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES: 


Historical criticism has proved that the original teachings
of Buddha can never be known. It seems that
Gautama Buddha’s teachings were memorized by his disciples.
After Buddha’s death a council was held at Rajagaha so that
the words of Buddha could be recited and agreed upon.
There were differences of opinion and conflicting memories
in the council. Opinion of Kayshapa and Ananda who were
prominent disciples of Buddha were given preference.
A hundred years later, a second council at Vesali was held.
Only after 400 years, after the death of Buddha were his
teachings and doctrines written down. Little attention was
paid regarding its authenticity, genuineness and purity.


Buddhist Scriptures can be divided into Pali and Sanskrit Literature:


A. Pali Literature:


The Pali literature was monopolized by the Hinayana sect of Buddhism.
Tri Pitaka 


The most important of all Buddhist scriptures is the TRI-PITAKA which is in Pali text.
It is supposed to be the earliest recorded Buddhist literature which was written in the
1st Century B.C.


The TRI-PITAKA or Three Baskets of law is composed of 3 books:


1. Vinaya Pitaka: ‘Rules of Conduct’ 
 
his is a boTok of discipline and mainly deals with rules of the order.


2. Sutta Pitaka: ‘Discourses’ 
 
It is a collection of sermons and discourses of Gautama Buddha and the incidents
in his life. It is the most important Pitaka and consists of five divisions known as
Nikayas. Dhammapada is the most famous Pali literature and contains aphorisms
and short statements covering the truth.
 3. Abhidhamma: ‘Analysis of Doctrine’ 
 
This third basket contains meta physical doctrines and is known as
Buddhist meta physicals. It is an analytical and logical elaboration of the
first two pitakas. It contains analysis and exposition of Buddhist doctrine.


B. Sanskrit Literature:


Sanskrit literature was preferred by the Mahayana. Sanskrit literature has not
been reduced to a collection or in Cannon like the Pali literature. Thus much
of the original Sanskrit literature has been lost. Some were translated into
other languages like Chinese and are now being re-translated into Sanskrit.


1. Maha vastu: ‘Sublime Story’ 
 
Mahavastu is the most famous work in Sanskrit which has been restored
from its Chinese translation. It consists of voluminous collection of legendary stories.


2.Lalitavistara 
 
Lalitavistara is one of the holiest of the Sanskrit literature. It belongs to the
first century C.E., 500 years after the death of Buddha. It contains the miracles
which the superstition loving people have attributed to Buddha.


II. TEACHINGS OF BUDDHA: 


A. Noble Truths: 


The principal teachings of Gautama Buddha can be summarised in what the
Buddhists call the ‘Four Noble Truths’:


First – There is suffering and misery in life .


Second – The cause of this suffering and misery is desire.


Third – Suffering and misery can be removed by removing desire.


Fourth – Desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold Path.


B. The Noble Eight Fold Path: 


(i) Right Views


(ii) Right Thoughts


(iii) Right Speech


(iv) Right Actions


(v) Right Livelihood


(vi) Right Efforts


(vii) Right Mindfulness


(viii) Right Meditation




C. Nirvana: 


Nirvana' literally means "blowing out" or "extinction". According to Buddhism,
this is the ultimate goal of life and can be described in various words.
It is a cessation of all sorrows, which can be achieved by removing desire by
following the Eight Fold Path.
III. PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM IS SELF – CONTRADICTORY: 


As mentioned earlier, the main teachings of Buddhism are summarised in the Four Noble Truths:
(i) There is suffering and misery in life.


(ii) The cause of suffering and misery is desire.


(iii) Suffering and misery can be removed by removing desire.


(iv) Desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold Path.
This Philosophy of Buddhism is self-contradictory or self-defeating because
the third truth says ‘suffering and misery can be removed by removing desire’ and
the fourth truth says that 'desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold Path'.


Now, for any person to follow Buddhism he should first have the desire to follow the
Four Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path. The Third great Noble Truth says that
desire should be removed. Once you remove desire, how can we follow the
Fourth Noble truth i.e. follow the Eight Fold Path unless we have a desire to follow
the Eight Fold Path. In short desire can only be removed by having a desire to follow
the Eight Fold Path. If you do not follow the Eight Fold Path, desire cannot be removed.
It is self contradicting as well as self-defeating to say that desire will only be removed
by continuously having a desire.
Read More...

Concept Of God In Buddhism


Buddha was silent about the existence or non-existence of God. It may be that since India was drowned in idol worship and anthropomorphism that a sudden step to monotheism would have been drastic and hence Buddha may have chosen to remain silent on the issue of God. He did not deny the existence of God. Buddha was once asked by a disciple whether God exists? He refused to reply. When pressed, he said that if you are suffering from a stomach ache would you concentrate on relieving the pain or studying the prescription of the physician. "It is not my business or yours to find out whether there is God – our business is to remove the sufferings of the world".
Buddhism provided Dhamma or the ‘impersonal law’ in place of God. However this could not satisfy the craving of human beings and the religion of self-help had to be converted into a religion of promise and hope. The Hinayana sect could not hold out any promise of external help to the people.
The Mahayana sect taught that Buddha’s watchful and compassionate eyes are on all miserable beings, thus making a God out of Buddha. Many scholars consider the evolution of God within Buddhism as an effect of Hinduism.

Many Buddhists adopted the local god and thus the religion of ‘No-God’ was transformed into the religion of ‘Many-Gods’ – big and small, strong and weak and male and female. The ‘Man-God’ appears on earth in human form and incarnates from time to time. Buddha was against the caste-system prevalent in the Hindu society.
Read More...

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) In Buddhist Scriptures

1. Buddha prophesised the advent of a Maitreya: 


A) Almost all Buddhist books contain this prophecy. It is in Chakkavatti Sinhnad Suttanta D. III, 76:
"There will arise in the world a Buddha named Maitreya (the benevolent one) a holy one, a supreme one, an enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe:


"What he has realized by his own supernatural knowledge he will publish to this  universe. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at its climax, glorious at the goal, in the spirit and the letter. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and thoroughly pure; even as I now preach my religion and a like life do proclaim. He will keep up the society of monks numbering many thousands, even as now I keep
up a society of monks numbering many hundreds".


B) According to Sacred Books of the East volume 35 pg. 225: 
 
"It is said that I am not an only Buddha upon whom the leadership and order is dependent. After me another Buddha  maitreya of such and such virtues will come. I am now the leader of hundreds, he will be the leader of thousands."


C) According to the Gospel of Buddha by Carus pg. 217 and 218 (From Ceylon sources):


"Ananda said to the Blessed One, ‘Who shall teach us when thou art gone?' 

And the Blessed one replied, 'I am not the first Buddha who came upon the earth nor shall I be the last. In due time another Buddha will arise in the world, a holy one, a supremely enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct,
auspicious, knowing the universe, an incomparable leader of men, a master of angels and mortals. He will reveal to you the same eternal truths, which I have taught you. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at
the climax and glorious at the goal. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and pure such as I now proclaim. His disciples will number many thousands while mine number many hundreds.'
Ananda said, 'How shall we know him?' 


The Blessed one replied, 'He will be known as Maitreya'."
(i) The Sanskrit word ‘Maitreya’ or its equivalent in Pali ‘Metteyya’ means loving, compassionate, merciful and benevolent. It also means kindness and friendliness, sympathy, etc. One Arabic word which is equivalent to all these
words is ‘Rahmat’. In Surah Al-Anbiya:


"We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures."
[Al-Qur’an 21:107]


Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was called the merciful, which is ‘Maitri’.


(ii) The words Mercy and Merciful are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an no less than 409 times.
 
(iii) Every chapter of the Glorious Qur’an, except Chapter 9, i.e. Surah Taubah begins with the beautiful formula, 'Bismillah Hir-Rahman Nir-Rahim', which means 'In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful'.
 
(iv) The Word Muhammad is also spelt as ‘Mahamet’ or ‘Mahomet’ and in various other ways in different languages. The word ‘Maho’ or ‘Maha’ in Pali and Sanskrit mean Great and Illustrious and ‘Metta’ means mercy. Therefore ‘Mahomet’ means ‘Great Mercy’. 
2. Buddha’s doctrine was Esoteric and Exoteric: 


According to Sacred Books of the East, volume 11, pg. 36 Maha-Parinibbana Sutta chapter 2 verse 32:
"I have preached the truth without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine, for in respect of truths, Ananda, the Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher, who keeps something back".


Muhammad (pbuh) on the commandment of Almighty God delivered the message and doctrine without making any distinction between esoteric and exoteric. The Qur'an was recited in public in the days of the Prophet and
is being done so till date. The Prophet had strictly forbidden the Muslims from hiding the doctrine


3. Devoted Servitors of the Buddhas: 


According to Sacred Books of the East volume 11 pg. 97 Maha-Parinibbana Sutta Chapter 5 verse 36:


"Then the Blessed one addressed the brethren, and said, ‘Whosoever, brethren have been Arahat-Buddhas through the long ages of the past, they were servitors just as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has been to me. And whosoever brethren shall be the Arahat-Buddhas of the future, there shall be servitors as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has been to me’."


The Servitor of Buddha was Ananda. Muhammad (pbuh) also had a servitor by the name Anas (r.a.) who was the son of Malik. Anas (r.a...) was presented to the Prophet by his parents. Anas (r.a...) relates: "My mother said to him,
'Oh Messenger of God, here is your little servant'." Further Anas relates, "I served him from the time I was 8 years old and the Prophet called me his son and his little beloved". Anas (r.a...) stayed by the Prophet in peace and in war, in safety as well as in danger till the end of his life.


i)  Anas (r.a.), even though he was only 11 years old stayed beside the Prophet during the battle of Uhud where the Prophet’s life was in great danger.


ii) Even during the battle of Honain when the Prophet was surrounded by the enemies who were archers, Anas (r.a...) who was only 16 years old stood by the Prophet.


Anas (R) can surely be compared with Ananda who stood by Gautam Buddha when the mad elephant approached him.


4. Six Criteria for Identifying Buddha: 


According to the Gospel of Buddha by Carus pg. 214:
"The Blessed one said, ‘There are two occasions on which a Tathagata’s appearance becomes clear and exceedingly bright. In the night Ananda, in which a Tathagata attains to the supreme and perfect insight, and in the night in which he passes finally away in that ultra passing which leaves nothing whatever of his earthly existence to remain.’ "
According to Gautam Buddha, following are the six criteria for identifying a Buddha.


i) A Buddha attains supreme and perfect insight at night-time.


ii) On the occasion of his complete enlightenment he looks exceedingly bright


iii) A Buddha dies a natural death.


iv) He dies at night-time.


v)  He looks exceedingly bright before his death.


vi) After his death a Buddha ceases to exist on earth.


i)  Muhammad (pbuh) attained supreme insight and Prophethood at night-time.


According to Surah Dukhan:

"By the books that makes thing clear – We sent it down during a blessed night."

[Al-Qur'an 44:2-3]


According to Surah Al-Qadar:


"We have indeed revealed this (message) in the night of power."
[Al-Qur'an 97:1]


ii) Muhammad (pbuh) instantly felt his understanding illumined with celestial light.


iii) Muhammad (pbuh) died a natural death.
iv) According to Ayesha (r.a.), Muhammad (pbuh) expired at night-time. When he was dying there was no oil in the lamp and his wife Ayesha (r.a.) had to borrow oil for the lamp. 


v) According to Anas (r.a.), Muhammad (pbuh) looked exceedingly bright in the night of his death.


vi) After the burial of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) he was never seen again in his bodily form on this earth.


5. Buddhas are only Preachers:


According to Dhammapada, Sacred Books of East volume 10 pg., 67:


"The Jathagatas (Buddhas) are only Preachers."


The Qur’an says in Surah Ghashiya:


"Therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish. Thou art not one to manage (men's) affairs." [Al-Qur'an 88:21-22]


6. Identification of Maitreya by Buddha: 


According to Dhammapada, Mattaya Sutta, 151:


"The promised one will be:


i) Compassionate for the whole creation


ii) A messenger of peace, a peace-maker


iii) The most successful in the world.


The Maitreya as a Preacher of morals will be:


i) Truthful


ii) Self-respecting


iii) Gentle and noble


iv) Not proud


v) As a king to creatures


vi) An example to others in deeds and in words".



Don't forget to read more on Buddhism

Please take 3 minutes to share this post
Read More...

Introduction To Sikhism

Sikhism is a non-Semitic, Aryan, non-Vedic religion. It is a religion that has the sixth largest following in the world. Some consider it as an offshoot of Hinduism. It was founded by Guru Nanak at the end of the 15th century. It originated in the area of Pakistan and North West India called Punjab, meaning the land of the five rivers. Guru Nanak was born in a Kshatriya (warrior caste) Hindu family but was very strongly influenced by Islam and Muslims.
DEFINITION OF SIKH AND SIKHISM


 The word ‘Sikh’ is derived from the word sisya meaning disciple or follower. Sikhism is a religion of ten Gurus, the first Guru being Guru Nanak and the tenth and the last being Guru Gobind Singh. The sacred book of Sikhism is Sri Guru Granth also called Adi Granth Sahib.


THE FIVE – ‘K’s


Every Sikh is supposed to keep the following five ‘K’s, which also serve to identify him as a Sikh:


Kesh – uncut hair.


Kanga – comb; used to keep the hair clean.


Kada – metal or steel bangle; for strength and self-restraint.


Kirpan – dagger; for self-defence.


Kaccha – special knee length underwear or under-drawer for agility.



Don't forget to read more on Sikhism

Please take 3 minutes to share this post
 
Read More...

Concept Of God In Sikhism


MULMANTRA: THE FUNDAMENTAL CREED OF SIKHISM

The best definition that any Sikh can give regarding the  concept of God in Sikhism is to quote the Mulmantra – the fundamental creed of Sikhism, which occurs at the beginning of Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

It is mentioned in Sri Guru Granth Sahib, volume 1 Japuji, the first verse:

"There exists but one God, who is called The True, The Creator, Free from fear and hate, Immortal, Not begotten, Self-Existent, Great and Compassionate."

Sikhism is a monotheistic Religion

Sikhism enjoins its followers to practise strict monotheism. It believes in only One Supreme God who is, in the unmanifest form, called Ek Omkara.

In the manifest form He is called Omkara and has several attributes such as:
Kartar – The Creator
Akal – The Eternal
Sattanama – The Holy Name
Sahib – The Lord
Parvardigar – The Cherisher
Rahim – The Merciful
Karim – The Benevolent

He is also called Wahe Guru – the One true God.

Besides Sikhism being strictly monotheistic, it also does not believe in Avataravada – the doctrine of incarnation. Almighty God does not incarnate Himself in what is known as Avatara. Sikhism is also strongly against idol worship.

Guru Nanak was influenced by Sant Kabir
Guru Nanak was influenced by the sayings of Sant Kabir so much that several chapters of Sri Guru Granth Sahib contain couplets of Sant Kabir.

One of the famous couplets of Sant Kabir is:

"Dukh mein sumirana sabh karein
Sukh mein karein na koya
Jo sukh mein sumirana karein
To dukh kaye hoye?"


"In times of trouble, God is remembered by all
But none remembers Him during peace and happiness.
If God is remembered in good times of happiness
Why should trouble occur?"

Compare this with the following verse of the Qur’an:

"When some trouble toucheth man,
He crieth unto his Lord,
Turning to Him in repentance:
But when He bestoweth
A favour upon him
As from Himself,
(Man) doth forget what he cried
And prayed for before,
And he doth set up
Rivals unto Allah."
[Al-Qur’an 39:8]

The Sikh scriptures therefore emphasise monotheism and God-consciousness.


Don't forget to read more on Sikhism

Please take 3 minutes to share this post
Read More...

Introduction To Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism is an ancient Aryan religion that
originated in Persia more than 2500 years ago.
Though it has relatively few adherents, less than
one hundred and thirty thousand in the whole world,
it is one of the oldest religions. Zoroaster was the
founder of Zoroastrianism, also commonly known
as Parsi-ism. It is also known as the religion of fire
worshippers and Magianism.


Parsi Scriptures consist of Dasatir and Vesta or
Zend-Avesta. Dasatir is further divided into two parts:
Khurda Dasatir and Kalan Dasatir.


Avesta is further divided into Khurda Avesta and Kalan Avesta also known
as Zend or Maha-Zend.


The religious scriptures of the Parsis are found in two languages:
Pahlawi (Pahlawi script resembles the present Persian script) and Zendi.
Besides these two scripts, some religious literature is found in cuneiform writing.


Some Parsis consider the Zend Avesta to be more authentic than the Dasatir
while the others consider Dasatir to be more authentic.

Zend Avesta is divided into three parts:



The first part contains Vendid.


The second part contains Sirozahs, Yashts and Nyays.


The third part contains Gathas, Yasha, Visparad, Afrinagan Gahs and miscellaneous.


DASATIR:


Dasatir means a book of ten parts: ‘Das’ meaning 'ten' and ‘tir’ meaning ‘a part’.
Dasatir is also the plural of Dastur, which means law or religious code.



Don't forget to read more about Zoroastrianism

Please take 3 minutes to share this post
Read More...

Concept Of God In Zoroastrianism

God in Zoroastrianism is known as ‘Ahura Mazda’. 
‘Ahura’ means ‘the Lord’ or 'The Master' and ‘Mazda’ 
means ‘the Wise’; hence ‘Ahura Mazda’ means 
‘the Wise Lord’ or ‘the Wise God’. Ahura Mazda stands 
for God, in a strictly monotheistic sense.

Qualities of God according to the Dasatir:

According to the Dasatir, Ahura Mazda has the following qualities:

  • He is One.
  • He is without an origin or end.
  • He has no father or mother, wife or son.
  • He is without a body or form.
  • Nothing resembles Him.
  • Neither the eye can behold Him, nor the power of thinking can conceive him.
  • He is above all that you can imagine.
  • He is nearer to you than your own self.
Qualities of God according to Avesta
According to the Avesta, the Gathas and the Yasna give various characteristics to Ahura Mazda such as:
Creator


Yasna 31:7 & 11
Yasna 44:7
Yasna 50:11
Yasna 51:7
Most Mighty

the Greatest
Yasna 33:11
Yasna 45:6
Beneficent

Hudai.
Yasna 33:11
Yasna 48:3
BountifulSpenta;
Yasna 43:4,5,7,9,11,13,15
Yasna 44:2
Yasna 45:5
Yasna 46:9
Yasna 48:3
Thus, in Zoroastrianism too, we find a concept of an eternal, omnipotent God. 
Several verses of Yasna praise the Lord as a Bountiful Creator.



Don't forget to read more about Zoroastrianism

Please take 3 minutes to share this post
Read More...

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) In The Zoroastrian Scriptures

  • Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in Zend Avesta
It is mentioned in Zend Avesta Farvardin Yasht chapter 28 verse 129
(Sacred Books of the East, volume 23, Zend Avesta Part II pg. 220):
"Whose name will be the Victorious, Soeshyant and whose name will be Astvat-ereta. He will be Soeshyant (The Beneficent one) because he will benefit the whole bodily world. He will be Astvat-ereta (he who makes the people, bodily creatures rise up) because as a bodily creature and as a living being he will stand against the destruction of the bodily (being) creatures to withstand the drug of the two footed brood, to withstand the evil done by the faithful (idolaters and the like and the errors of the Mazdaynians)".
This Prophecy applies to no other person more perfectly than it does to Muhammad (pbuh):

The Prophet was not only victorious at Fatah Makkah but was also merciful when he let go the blood thirsty opponents by saying:

"There shall be no reproof against you this day".
Soeshyant means the ‘praised one’ (refer Haisting’s Encyclopedia), which translated in Arabic means Muhammad (pbuh).

Astvat-ereta is derived from the root word Astu which in Sanskrit as well as in Zend means ‘to praise’. The infinitive Sitaudan in present day Persian means praising. It can also be derived from the Persian root word istadan which would mean ‘one who makes a thing rise up’. Therefore Astvat-ereta means the one who praised, which is the exact translation of the Arabic word 'Ahmed' which is another name for Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The Prophecy clearly mentions both the names of the Prophet i.e. Muhammad (pbuh) and Ahmed (pbuh).

The Prophecy further says that he will benefit the whole bodily world and the Qur’an testifies this in Surah Al-Anbiya chapter 21 verse 107:

"We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures."
              [Al-Qur'an 21:107]

Sanctity of Prophet’s Companions:
In Zend Avesta Zamyad Yasht chapter 16 verse 95 (Sacred Books of the East, volume 23 Zend Avesta Part II pg. 308):

"And there shall his friends come forward, the friends of Astvat-ereta, who are fiend-smitting, well thinking, well-speaking, well-doing, following the good law and whose tongues have never uttered a word of falsehood."

Here too Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned by name as Astvat-ereta.

There is also a mention of the Prophet’s friends as companions who will be fighting the evil; pious, holy men having good moral values and always speaking the truth. This is a clear reference to the Sahabas – the prophet's companions.

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in Dasatir:
The sum and substance of the prophecy mentioned in Dasatir is, that when the Zoroastrian people will forsake their religion and will become dissolute, a man will rise in Arabia, whose followers will conquer Persian and subjugate the arrogant Persians. Instead of worshipping fire in their own temples, they will turn their faces in prayer towards Kaaba of Abraham (pbuh) which will be cleared of all idols. They (the followers of the Arabian Prophet), will be a mercy unto the world. They will become masters of Persia, Madain, Tus, Balkh, the sacred places of the Zoroastrians and the neighbouring territories. Their Prophet will be an eloquent man telling miraculous things.

This Prophecy relates to no other person but to Muhammad (pbuh).

Muhammad (pbuh) will be the Last Prophet:
It is mentioned in Bundahish chapter 30 verses 6 to 27 that Soeshyant will be the last Prophet implying that Muhammad (pbuh) will be the last Prophet. The Qur’an testifies this in Surah Ahzab.

"Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things."
                    [Al-Qur'an 33:40]


Don't forget to read more about Zoroastrianism


Please take 3 minutes to share this post
Read More...